Guide Designed to Mislead

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We will continue to work with Southwest Airlines and its pilots on efforts to safely return the MAX to service. Boeing already faces a number of lawsuits , including from families of victims of the two crashes and shareholders. Lawyers specializing in aviation claims say Boeing could be facing historic punitive damages. Looking for more in-depth coverage of Boeing? Same Data, Different Y-Axis.

Why lie when you can just omit? L eaving out variables can affect how you interpret the data and what conclusions you draw from it. As an example of what happens when you omit some data, be that because you purposefully want to create a misleading data visualization or you simply want to make your work easier, take a look at the scatter plot below.

See these graphs originally published by Cogent Legal. By only plotting every second year instead of every year, the graph appears to have a steady increase, while the real data is more volatile. Companies can take advantage of this by omitting years with significant changes in sales to make their earnings look constant and predictable, masking the true volatility of the market. When evaluating data visualizations make sure to have all the data accessible. We are beginning to see correlating causation more and more with big data analyses.

Figuring out correlation is simply easy. Correlating Causation.


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If you want your data to tell the whole truth and nothing but the truth, implement these practices to make sure you avoid misleading data visualization. By using the standard model for visual models, you can avoid misleading your reader. Lying attracts greater opprobrium than does misleading because the deception is intentional and the harm, potentially, is far reaching: When we discover that someone we trusted can be trusted no longer, it forces us to reexamine the universe, to question the whole instinct and concept of trust.

Rich : The deceived can feel wronged, sometimes profoundly so. Nevertheless, some lies may be necessary and morally defensible such as a prosocial lie to save a target from a hit squad.

And some, arguably, do little or no harm, and may avoid cruelty. Baier, A. Trust and antitrust. Ethics, 96 2 , — CrossRef Google Scholar.

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Misleading Data Visualization Examples

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Lies, Bullshit and Fake News: Some Epistemological Concerns

Echo chambers and epistemic bubbles. Rich, A.


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